Sunday, March 3, 2019

Ap World History Chapter 26 Notes

Chapter 26 Notes Ottomans and Arabs Ottomans Factors of Decline * Competition amongst elite * Weak rulers * Increasingly powerful Janissary corps * Increased ambition from European merchants * Military challenges from the westmost * Ottomans vs. Russia (result loss of Serbia, Greece, and most of Balkans) Survival * compete European rivals against each other * Selim III reformed bureaucracy, new army and navy.Killed by janissaries in 1807 * Mahmud II slaughtered Janissaries, families and religious allies, reforms based on western sandwich influence (angered conservative religious leaders) * Tanzimat Reforms (1939-1876) series of Western influenced reforms in education, government, newspapers, and constitution. inception of railroad and telegraph systems (effect communication increased, minority groups increased power) * Consequences artisans negatively naturalized (thank you, Britain), women s status remained stagnant Backlash to Reforms Conflict between rare and new orders * Abdul Hamid attempted to return to despotic governing.. nullified constitution, removed Westerners in power, continued SOME Western policies * Coup 1908 Ottoman Society for amalgamation and Progress (Young Turks) fought for return to 1976 constitution, Sultan remained as figurehead. * War in due north Africa Ottomans lost Libya * Young Turks vs. Arabs * World War I Turkey sided with Germany. Arab Heartlands impregnable Crescent, Egypt, North AfricaIdentified with Ottoman rulers as Muslims, disliked Ottoman rule * terror of Western rule Muhammad Ali, Westernizing Europe * Napoleon invades Egypt (1798) example of Western legions power, eventually defeated by the British * Western reforms introduced (military, agriculture) little realised in the long-term * Khedives Muhammads descendants, ruled Egypt until 1952 Issues and European Help * cotton wool solely dependent on export * Misuse of money by the elite Indebted to European powers * Suez Canal introduces power struggle b/w Eur opean powers and Egypt (France and Britain) * Conservative Muslims resented Western presence * Liberal Muslims borrowed from West * Skirmish between Britain and Khedival army results in British domination (Egypt is non colonized) Egypt in Sudan * Sudan exploited, forced to reform slave trade * Jihad called against Egyptian rulers and Britain * Sudan successful in maintaining independence until 1896 * Western engineering science vs. Eastern technology

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