Wednesday, February 27, 2019
Review Questions Chapter
red chromatic reefs argon elaborate networks of crevices, ledges, and holes made up of calcium carbonate coral polyps argon tiny animals that build coral reefs by secreting a change surface of limestone around their bodies that accumulate once multiple polyps die.Coral reefs help moderate atmospheric temperatures by removing CA from the atmosphere, act as natural barriers that help protect of the worlds coast melodys from erosion by battering waves and storms, provide habitats for a variety of oceanic organisms, produce about one-tenth of the global fish understanding, one-fourth of the catch n developing countries, provide Jobs and building materials for some of the worlds poorest countries, and support seek and tourism Industries worth billions of dollars each year.Coral bleaching is when a coral becomes stressed and the alga on which it depends for food and color die out, leaving an underlying neat or bleached skeleton of calcium carbonate this occurs beca exercise of in creased peeing temperatures and runoff of silt from the land. 2. The two major aquatic life regulates atomic number 18 saltiness body of body of water (marine) and freshwater life zones. 3. Phytoplankton (plank plankton) argon multiple types of algae Zooplankton (animal Lankan) be primary and secondary consumers which feed off phytoplankton (primary consumers) or other zooplankton (secondary consumers these regurgitate from protozoa to large invertebrates such as Jellyfish. Alternation atomic number 18 much littler plankton that may be responsible for 70% of the primary productivity earnest the ocean surface. Nektons are strongly swimming consumers such as fish, turtles, and whales. Penthouses are bottom dwellers that attach themselves to one spot (e. G. Barnacles, oysters, worms, lobsters, crabs). Decomposer are organisms (mainly bacteria) which break reduce the organic compounds in the dead bodies and haves of aquatic organisms into simple nutrient compounds for use b y aquatic producers. 4. A major advantage of living In an aquatic life zone Is the fact that there Is spunky biodiversity.A single out Is that It Is constantly affected by gracious activities. 5. The four factors that determine the types and amount of organisms found in these layers are temperature, access to sunlight for photosynthesis, turn 02 content, and approachability of nutrients. 6. The marine systems provide climate moderation, carbon doodle absorption, nutrient cycling, xerox treatment, reduced storm impact, habitats and nursery areas, emetic resources and biodiversity, scientific information, food, animal and caress feed, pharmaceuticals, harbors and transportation routes, recreation, employment, oil and natural gas, minerals, and building materials. . The coastal zone Is the warm, nutrient-rich, shoal water that extends from the Estuaries are regions where rivers meet the ocean. Coastal wetlands are land areas cover with water all or part of the year. Mangroves are the tropical counterparts of salt marshes. Temperature and salinity vary greatly in estuaries and coastal wetlands because seawater and freshwater mix, because tidal and river flows vary, and cause of land runoff.These have such a high NP because of high nutrient inputs from rivers and near land, rapid circulation of nutrients by tidal flows, presence of many producer plants, and ample sunlight penetrating the school waters. 8. The intertribal zone is the area between low and high tides. overstrung shores are landes with a remarkable variety of species that occupy different niches in response to daily and seasonal changes in environmental conditions such as temperature, water flows, and salinity. Sandy shores are beaches with niches for different marine organisms. . Barrier islands are low, narrow, sandy islands that form offshore from a coastline. These are sought for human development because they are beautiful however, these are at risk because the dope be damaged or de stroyed by flooding, severe beach erosion, or storms. The dunes should be protected because they serve as the first line of defense against the ravages of the sea. 10. Coral reefs are vulnerable to damage because they receive slowly, are disrupted easily, and only thrive in clear, warm, and fairly shallow water of constant high salinity.Humans impact coral reefs negatively by make ocean warming, soil erosion, algae growth from fertilizer runoff, mangrove destruction, bleaching, raise sea levels, increased UP exposure, damage from anchors, and damage from fishing and diving. 11 . The open sea is the sharp increase in water discretion at the edge of the continental shelf separated from the coastal zone. Its trio main vertical zones are the epiphytic zone, the bathmat zone, and the abyssal zone. The NP per unit of area is so low because of its size. 2. Humans destroy coastal wetlands for floriculture and urban development, destroy mangroves for agriculture, development, and aqua culture, erode beaches because of coastal development and rising sea levels, degrade ocean bottom habitats by dredging and trawler fishing, and damage coral reefs. 13. Freshwater life zones are the freshwater bodies of water. The two main types are standing (lentil) bodies of freshwater and flowing (lactic) bodies of freshwater. 14.Freshwater systems provide climate moderation, nutrient cycling, waste treatment, flood control, groundwater recharge, habitats for many species, genetic resources for biodiversity, scientific information, food, drinking water, irrigation water, hydroelectricity, transportation corridors, recreation, and employment. Unify, and groundwater sludge fills the depressions in the earths surface. The literal zone is the zone near the shore which consists of the shallow sunlit waters to the judgments at which rooted plants stop growing.The liniment zone is the open, sunlit water surface layer away from the shore that extends to the depth penetrated by the sunli ght. The profoundly zone is the deep, open water where is too stern for photosynthesis. Then benthic zone is the lowest part of the lake where mostly decomposer and debris feeders are located. 16. The three types of lakes are the oligarchic (poorly nourished) lake, atrophic well nourished) lake, and the mesospheric (middle) lake. 17. get hold water is the water which doesnt seep into the ground or evaporate.Runoff is surface water once it flows into streams. A watershed is a land area that delivers runoff, sediment, and dissolved substances to a stream. The floodplain zone is generally populate by cold-water fish. The modulation zone is inhabited by producers and cool- and warm-water fish species. The floodplain zone is populated by producers such as algae, contractible, and rooted aquatic plants on the shore. 18. inland wetlands are lands covered with freshwater all or part of the time.Marshes, swamps, prairie potholes, floodplains, and Arctic tundra in the summer are example s of inland wetlands. Seasonal inland wetlands are wetlands that are only covered by water during certain quantify of the year. 19. Dams, diversions, and canals fragment 40% of the worlds 237 large rivers. Flood control methods built along rivers alter and destroy aquatic habitats. Cities and farmlands add pollutants and excess plant nutrients to nearby streams and rivers. Many inland wetlands have been drained or filled to grow crops or have been covered with concrete, asphalt, and buildings.